De syv himle er uden betydning

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Jeg har tidligere spurgt om begrebet syv himle og fået at vide, at der i den antikke jødedom optræder syv himle.

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Bennie Bakmann

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Kære Bennie

Der er ingen henvisninger i Biblen, men jeg har fundet et sted i Talmud, og her kan du se, hvad der er blevet sagt om dette fænomen.

Det er ikke noget, der spiller en rolle i traditionel jødedom.

R. Judah said: There are two firmaments, for it is said: Behold, unto the Lord thy God belongeth heaven, and the heaven of heavens.18 Resh Lakish said: [There are] seven, namely, Wilon,19 Rakia',20 Shehakim,21 Zebul,22 Ma'on,23 Makon,24 Araboth.25 Wilon serves no purpose except that it enters in the morning and goes forth in the evening26 and renews every day the work of creation, for it is said: That stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain,27 and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.28 Rakia' is that in which sun and moon, stars and constellations are set, for it is said: And God set them29 in the firmament [Rakia'] of the heaven.30 Shehakim is that in which millstones stand and grind31 manna for the righteous for it is said: And He commanded the skies [Shehakim] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food etc.32 Zebul is that in which [the heavenly] Jerusalem33 and the Temple and the Altar are built, and Michael, the great Prince,34 stands and offers up thereon an offering, for it is said: I have surely built Thee a house of habitation [Zebul], a place for Thee to dwell in for ever.35 And whence do we derive that it is called heaven? For it is written: Look down from heaven, and see, even from
Thy holy and glorious habitation.36 Ma'on is that in which there are companies of Ministering Angels, who utter [divine] song by night, and are silent by day for the sake of Israel's glory,37 for it is said: By day the Lord doth command His lovingkindness,38 and in the night His song is with
me.
(18) Deut. X, 14.
(19) I.e., Curtain', from Lat. Velum.
(20) I.e., Expanse, firmament'.
(21) Lit., Clouds', from eja, dust' (cf. Isa. XL, 15).
(22) B.D.B.: Elevation, height, lofty abode'; N.H., Temple'. Jastrow:
(place of offering or entertainment) residence, especially Temple'.
(23) I.e., Dwelling, habitation'.
(24) I.e., Fixed or established place, foundation, residence'.
(25) V. Ps, LXVIII, 5. Levy: Perhaps from crg, to be dark' (cf. crg
evening) and syn. with kprg: (thick darkness, heavy cloud, in which God
dwells; cf. Ex. XX, 18).
(26) According to Rashi, Wilon (Curtain') draws in every morning, and thus
causes the light of day to become visible; in the evening it draws out and
hides the daylight. This process constitutes the renewal of the work of
creation. But Tosaf. explains that Wilon produces the light of day, and when
it withdraws at night darkness prevails.
(27) Thus there is a curtain-like heaven.
(28) Isa. XL, 22.
(29) I.e., the heavenly luminaries.
(30) Gen. I, 17.
(31) There is probably a play here on the meaning of eja (the root of
shehakim), which means to rub away, pulverize, grind' (cf. Ex. XXX, 36 and
Job, XIV, 19).
(32) Ps. LXXVIII, 23, 24.
(33) Cf. Ta'an. 5a: The Holy One blessed be He, said: I shall not enter the
Jerusalem which is above, until I enter the Jerusalem which is below'.
(34) Michael is Israel's Guardian Angel; cf. Dan. XII, 1 and Yoma 77a. Num.
Rab. s. 2, Hul. 40a.
(35) I Kings VIII, 13; the earthly Temple corresponds to the heavenly
Sanctuary.
(36) Isa. LXIII, 15.
(37) Because Israel utters God's praise by day.
(38) By silencing the angels by day. God shows lovingkindness to the
children of Israel, who are thus permitted to win divine grace by their
prayer. Cf. also A.Z. 3b on the same verse.
(39) Ps. XLII, 9. I.e., by night the song of the angels joins mine (says
Israel), which I uttered by day (Rashi).

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